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System: score11

Authors

Description

SCORE-11 (Brinkman, 1981 and 1990) is a note-list preprocessor for the Csound compiler,[1] which was written by Barry Vercoe at MIT. SCORE-11 was written by Alexander Brinkman of the Eastman School of Music. The SCORE-11 input syntax is based, with some important extensions, on the well known "SCORE" program (used on the Stanford-Ircam MUS10 system) by Leland Smith (Smith, 1972 and 1980). A composer who is familiar with either preprocessor will have no problems changing to the other one. This will reduce dependency on a specific music system. Some features of SCORE were not implemented in SCORE-11. These are mostly the features that allow data to be copied from one instrument block to another. Several features wer added to SCORE-11 to make it very powerful. SCORE-11 is written in the PASCAL programming language, increasing its potential for exportability. You will find SCORE-11 to be of great help in the process of defining the hundreds of events that make up a composition. In the following pages you will find a comprehensive manual introducing and describing in detail the various features of SCORE-11. [1] SCORE-11 was originally designed for Vercoe's MUSIC11 system. MUSIC11, which was written in PDP-11 assembly language, was replaced in 1986 by Csound, a version of the program written in the programming language C, and which runs on many different computer systems. SCORE-11 works well with either version of Vercoe's program, which will be referred to as Csound in this manual except where the distinction is important.

References

“The characteristics of every sound depend on the way in which the sound was produced. Each art-form exploits its special production methods in order to endow the phenomena with unmistakable characteristics. Artistic economy demands that the means be appropriate to the end, and that the exploitation of the means be an end in itself.”

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“The use of computers is the logical outcome of a historical development. It by no means heralds a new musical epoch; it simply offers a fast, reliable and versatile means of solving problems that already demanded solution. The person who writes the computer programme must bear the development of musical language up to the present in mind, and try to advance a stage further.”

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“With the development of electronic and computer music, multidemnsionality of sound representation turned out to be both natural and useful. But music goes beyond multidimensionality -- it is even more complex.”

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“The danger is great of letting oneself be trapped by the tools and of becoming stuck in the sands of technology that has come like an intruder into the relatively calm waters of the thought in instrumental music.”

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“Composers are now able, as never before, to satisfy the dictates of that inner ear of the imagination. They are also lucky so far in not being hampered by esthetic codification -- at least not yet! But I am afraid it will not be long before some musical mortician begins embalming electronic music in rules.”

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“... the individual and the society are deprived of the formidable power of free imagination that musical composition offers them. We are able to tear down this iron curtain, thanks to the technology of computers...”

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“... the use of numerical machines no longer stands in need of justification. It is not a mystery. If there is a mystery, it is in the mental structures of music and not in the computers, which are only tools, extensions of the hand and the slide rule.”

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“Music is then no longer primarily conceived as a guide for premeditated emotions, but as the density of the possible relationships which first become actuality during production under the influence of chance, and which during performance are presented to the listener as sounds beyond any environmental associatiations, independent of bodily actions required to produce sounds...”

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“... but beware, technique can submerge the user: We must defend ourselves; it is good to use techniques, but we have to dominate them, to stay alert.”

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“The computing machine is a marvelous invention and seems almost superhuman. But in reality it is as limited as the mind of the individual who feeds it material. Like the computer, the machines we use for making music can only give back what we put into them.”

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“... and the hope of an extraordinary aesthetic success based on extraordinary technology is a cruel deceit.”

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